Access to energy

In 2019, 770 million people, 10% of the world population, had no access to electricity. Many more have only access to a limited, intermittent or unreliable electricity service. About 2.6 billion people, 34% of the world population, were without clean cooking facilities.

Data are from the World Energy Outlook, published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in October 2020. In accordance to the IEA, we define lack of access to electricity and to clean cooking facilities as lack of access to “modern energy”.

Due to the Covid-19 crisis, the number of people without access to electricity is increasing in 2020. The uncertainties arising from the Covid-19 crisis pose many risks to progress in gaining access by reducing the ability of households to pay for energy services and weakening the financial situation of governments and energy companies.

Without additional policy measures and support, 660 million people will remain without access to electricity in 2030; more than 80% of them live in sub-Saharan Africa.

In 2015 the United Nations adopted the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, which includes a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030. SDG number 7 is dedicated to “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all”, a big challenge to the global community.


The issue of access to modern energy may be analyzed from various points of view. We have identified three main perspectives: social inclusioneconomic development and environmental preservation.


To make energy access sustainable and effective in the long term we must consider different technical or political solutions. This web-site presents a variety of solutions and examines the use of different energy sourcestechnologies and business models.